When poor people are unable to help themselves through the market, usually by working, or get help from family, friends or other social ties, then and only then should the government step in with aid necessary to fit their needs.
These optimal conditions started to change in the s, as socioeconomic development, economic restructuring, the rise of structural poverty, an aging population and rising expectations all led to increasing demands for social programmes. The first chief executive of HKSAR, Tung Chee-Hwa, continued increasing social spending, envisioning the construction of a Confucian welfare state as the basis of the new political order.
An economic recession of unprecedented magnitude reduced the growth of gross domestic product GDP to —5. Compared with its Asian counterparts, the welfare regime of HKSAR stands out because of the strong role played by the state as the financier and provider of services, as opposed to being simply the regulator.
On top of its heavy involvement in financing and provision, it is perhaps also the state that adheres most closely to the idea of small government.
An accumulation of revenue coupled with the political transition led the government to generously increase spending on social provision. The political transition toward saw the partial democratization of the legislature.
The kinds of programs produced under this model are generally seen as being limited to the poor. The withdrawal of the state from redistributive social programmes has happened at a time when the middle and lower classes have been deeply affected by real financial difficulties, a substantial decline in standards of living, and a lack of social safety nets that could serve as a buffer against such economic fluctuations.
A situation of full employment also gave rise to real wage increases that minimized public demands for welfare provision. The reconfiguration of welfare developmentalism thus entailed a neoliberal turn in social policy and a developmentalist turn in economic policy. The Institutional Model In this model, social welfare is provided for essentially everyone in a society, rich or poor, and is considered part of what the society should be providing for its citizens.
The retrenchment of the residual welfare state was accomplished through measures of recommodification and cost containment.
Programs for the poor such as food stamps, Medicaid and emergency housing assistance generally fit this model in the United States.
At the same time, the colonial state was careful to subsume this political need for better social provision under the wider policy parameters of economic non-interventionism and financial conservatism which entailed a low tax rate, low public expenditure and a public sector of limited size.
In sum, in Asian industrialized states such as HKSAR, social policy reform is inevitably connected with democratization. This paradoxical combination of a colonial state of limited capacity with a relatively heavy state role in financing and the provision of collective consumption is the result of the confluence of a number of factors that were related to the colonial condition, namely the interest of colonial domination, and the special configuration of economic and financial policies that arose from such interest.
Faced with all these challenges, the government prioritized the elimination of the budget deficit; as a result, social programmes suffered from expenditure cutbacks. The prospects for more progressive social policy change lie in the construction of alternative discourses.
The residual model generally holds that the government should be involved in social welfare only as a last resort safety net when other avenues fail. Support is often cut off once people have the means to get assistance elsewhere.
Sustaining this residual welfare state required high economic growth rates to generate a continuous increase in government revenue with which to fund the expansion of social programmes.
Rapid industrialization, socioeconomic development and a crisis of legitimacy generated the need for more social provision. In some countries, medical care and post-secondary schooling, such as college and trade school, are also administered through such a model, while in the United States these services are generally only available to the needy through a more residual approach.
In response to the structural problems of the economy, the government embarked on the development of a knowledge-based economy and government initiatives in business. Many of the institutional conditions for the generation of this consensus—and hence, progressive change—hinge on further constitutional reform.
Both the middle and lower classes were hit hard by unemployment, wage decline and asset deflation. The potential problem of the long-term sustainability of the residual welfare state was partly obscured in the late s to early s by the economic bubble generated by the real estate market.The founding of the “residual welfare state” in the early s marked the inception of welfare developmentalism in Hong Kong.
Rapid industrialization, socioeconomic development and a crisis of legitimacy generated the need for more social provision. In conclusion, only social security policy in Hong Kong fit the Residual Welfare Model but other policies such as housing, education, health care and social care do not fit the model.
On the other hand, the social welfare systems in Hong Kong fit most of the elements of The East Asian Welfare Model. A definition of the term "residual welfare" is presented. It refers to welfare that is offered as a safety net for people who are unable to manage through their own resources or by other means.
It was recommended by Wilensky and Lebeaux as an alternative option to the institutional model of welfare. Sep 05, · What Is A Residual Welfare State ideal where and institutional redistributive models are at extreme ends spectrum construction relations in.
Hong Kong's Twist on Welfare: The More You Work, the More Welfare You Get An elderly woman pushes a cart filled with cardboard for recycling in the North Point area of. The residual model of social work and social welfare essentially sees government support for people's well-being as a safety net of last resort.Download